Investing in Youth Leadership
Dec 2010 06

When you grow up in urban India like I have, it’s almost like growing up with two identities at the same time. The first is where in your own world, you are trying to establish yourself in a society that traditionally doesn’t really listen to young people.

And then you meet this second world, and realize that you’re part of a population of 315 million people in India, who are between 10 and 24 years of age. And the statistics that define and describe this demographic that you are a part of, are worrying.

Population Council did a National Study on ‘Youth in India’ in 2006-2007 to discover that of a total population of over 50,000 young people, only 15% of young people have access to information from their parents or teachers on any kind of sexuality education. By 18, 28% of Indian women will have given birth to a child and 49% will be married. Of 2.5 million people in India who are HIV+, 50% of all new infections take place amongst young people between 15-24 years of age.

I live in an era with 1/3rd of the world’s population constituting young people. The urgent need of addressing their right to services, information and healthcare is clear. Let’s stop there. You begin to wonder therefore, why we are not involved with policies and programmes that affect our lives and why our rights are not considered important enough to invest in. Especially when we know this world cannot afford the financial and public health burden and risk of not doing so.

Almost 73% of young girls in India have misconceptions about modes of HIV transmission and Comprehensive Sexuality Education is banned in 7 states across the country. In this century, these cannot be justifiable reasons anymore for why young people do not have access to comprehensive health services or information. Often when we talk about education, we need to understand that issues of violence, abuse, harm reduction, poverty, sexuality, climate, equity, culture and norms impact different young people differently. We need to empower young people to make informed decisions, so they are best placed to negotiate vulnerabilities that impact them.

There is something fundamentally incorrect, with health and policy systems, with governments that put the idea of shame, silence and taboo into a young child’s mind by virtue of the lack of education they give him or her on basic issues regarding their body, rights, sexuality and health. Young people need to be trusted. We do not lack the ability to comprehend information given to them and can be trusted to exercise informed decision making, on the premise that unbiased information is given to us.

Most development aid approaches and agencies have a tendency to infantilize young people in how they see and work with this constituency, denying them agency to exercise independent choice. We often tend to justify giving young people information from adisease prevention, population control perspective, instead of a rights based approach to health. The strategy that looks to ‘protect and save’ young people, especially young women and girls, is often the one, which fails in the long run. The only real protection that can work to effectively address young people and women and girl’s vulnerability to HIV infection and violence is empowerment. We are capable of saving ourselves.

The effectiveness of the information that is internalized by young people will depend both upon the relevance and the content in which they live. I frequently train adolescents and young girls in the work that I do, both in urban schools as well as urban slums. By legitimizing a space to discuss their concerns, as a 17 year old girl mentioned in her feedback form, ‘I realized that issues like HIV and sex weren’t just about infection. It’s about me. How much I understand and respect and have control over my own body. There’s nothing wrong in asking questions, they reduce stigma. The only shame is in not answering them.’

In this political moment, it is perhaps worth asking, why we are so scared to empower young people and whether we can afford the financial burden of not doing so. You should be able to make informed decisions in your own life and have the power to protect yourself from threats to your health and well being. No well-meaning donor, policy maker or funding strategy should deny you those basic rights. And this work cannot happen without integrated support.

‘Leaders’ in our generation don’t need to be single individuals with exceptional brilliance, but rather shared roles in communities where policies recognize that investing in empowering people to build equity is key. When you invest in building the skills, knowledge and access that a young person has, you empower young people to create economic and resource equity in their communities, not just for each other, but also for future generations to come.

A generation of informed young people can challenge, change and mitigate the devastating impact that a lack of health and rights leaves many of us in today.

Policy has to be willing to work with young people, rather than for them, to empower them to stand up for themselves. That, in my mind, is the critical challenge and the greatest contribution that governments and donors can make to the largest-ever generation of young people.

Ishita Chaudhry

Founder & Chief Executive Officer

The YP Foundation

Developing Potential In Young People

New Delhi, India

Bibliography

The following publications have been referenced as a background to writing the article:

  • Nirantar, Sexuality Education Series, Part 1.
  • 2008 National Aids Control Organization’s Adolescent Education Programme.
  • IPPF CSE Framework.
  • Population Council, Study, Youth in India: Situation and Needs 2006-2007.
  • ‘Know Your Body, Know Your Rights’, The YP Foundation, 2010
  • The author would like to acknowledge the contributions and research of Ishita Sharma and Ruchika Tara Mathur at The YP Foundation to the article.

उत्तर प्रदेश में युवाओं को प्रजनन एवं यौनिक स्वास्थ्य एवं अधिकार की जानकारी इस लिए आवश्यक है क्योंकि –

किशोरों में असुरक्षित यौन संबंधों के चलते विभिन्न प्रजनन व यौन संक्रमित बीमारियों जैसे प्रजनन तंत्र संक्रमण (आर.टी.आई), यौन तंत्र संक्रमण (एस.टी.डी), एच. आई. वी. की संख्या बढ रही है।

  • उत्तर भारत की जनसंख्या में एक अध्ययन के अनुसार 3,300 युवाओं में से 15 से 24 वर्ष के 13 प्रतिशत स्कूली बच्चें तथा 33 प्रतिशत वहां कार्यरत लोगों ने बताया कि उन्होंने शादी से पूर्व शारीरिक संबंध बनाये हैं। इनमें से कई युवा एक से ज्यादा साथियों के साथ शारीरिक संबंध रखते थे। लेकिन उन्हें जानकारी व सेवाओं के अभाव था जिससे कि वे स्वंय को यौन संक्रमित रोगों से बचा सकते थे।
  • सन 2002 में करीब आधे युवा जा कि अविवाहित और किशोर थे, उन्होनें अपने आखिरी यौन संबंधों के दौरान कंडोम का प्रयोग किया, ये बताया।
  • उत्तर प्रदेश में विवाहित महिलाएं जो कि 15 से 49 उम्र के बीच की है सिर्फ 8.7 प्रतिषत ने बताया कि वे कंडोम का प्रयोग करते हैं।
  • भारत में एच.आई.वी संक्रमित लोगों संख्या 5.1 मिलीयन है।
  • भारत में नये एच.आई.वी संक्रमित लोगों में से 50 प्रतिषत 15-24 साल के युवा है।
  • उत्तर प्रदेश में 2 3 विवाहित महिलाओं को यह मालूम नहीं था कि कंडोम के इस्तमाल से एच.आई.वी का खतरा कम हो जाता है। सिर्फ 74 प्रतिशत पुरुष तथा 40 प्रतिशत महिलाओं ने कभी एडस के बारे में सुना था।
  • सन 2006 के अन्त तक पूरे विश्व में 39.5 प्रतिशत लोग एच.आई.वी एडस से ग्रसित थे। इनमें से 35 प्रतिशत केस 35 वर्ष के युवा हैं। अधिकतर युवाओं को यह असुरक्षित यौन संबंधों के माध्यम से हुआ है।
  • एक अध्ययन की समीक्षा यह बताती है कि 25 प्रतिशत यौन संक्रमित रोगों के मरीज जो सरकारी क्लीनिक में इलाज सेवाओं के लिए आते हैं, 18 वर्ष से कम आयु का हैं।
  • तमिलनाडू में 12 महानों में एक सर्वे के दौरान 3 प्रतिशत अविवाहित पुरुष तथा 5 प्रतिशत अविवाहित महिला युवाओ ने प्रजनन तंत्र संक्रमण, (आर.टी.आई), यौन तंत्र संक्रमण (एस.टी.डी) के लक्षणों के अनुभव बताये जैसे सफेद पानी, अल्सर आदि।

किशोर-किशोरियों के खिलाफ बिना इच्छा के जबरन तथा हिंसक तरीके से यौन संबंध बनाये जाते हैं

  • भारत में 53 प्रतिशत से भी अधिक बच्चों के साथ यौन हिंसा होती है। स्कूल जाने वाले बच्चे के साथ होने वाले यौन हिंसो के लिए लडके और लडकियों के आंकडों में कोई बडा अंतर नहीं है, दोनों के साथ सामान्य रुप से बराबर यौन हिंसा अथवा जबरदस्ती यौन संबंध बनाये जाते हैं। इस यौन हिंसा का काफी गहरा प्रभाव उनके शारीरिक , मानसिक और व्यवहार में आए परिवर्तन के रुप में देखा जा सकता है।
  • यौन हिंसा के शिकार लगभग एक तिहाई बच्चे 16 वर्ष से कम उम्र के हैं।
  • किशोरावस्था में जबरदस्ती यौन संबंध बनाना विवाहित व अविवाहित दोनों ही के साथ होता है। ग्रामीण उत्तर प्रदेश तथा मुम्बई में अधिकतर विवाहित महिलाओं ने कम उम्र में उनके पति द्वारा बनाये गये यौन संबंधों को हिंसक जबरदस्ती बताया।
  • मुम्बई में 20 प्रतिशत युवा महिलायें जो कि गर्भपात के लिए आती हैं, उन्होने बताया कि उनके साथ जबरन यौन संबंध बनाये गये जिसमें 10 प्रतिशत घर में काम करने वाले पुरुषों द्वारा तथा चार प्रतिशत अन्य मामलों में गर्भवती हुई है।

चिकित्सीय निष्कर्ष के अनुसार यौन हिंसा को जब नजरअंदाज करने के कारण अवसाद, तनाव और व्यवहार में काफी बदलाव आ जाता है। इसका आगे काफी बुरा असर होता है जैसे नकारात्मक व्यवहार, नशे का शिकार होना, पढाई में कमजोर होना, अपराधिक प्रवृत्तियों में लिप्त होना आदि।

अनु ,’ परिवर्तन में युवा ’ , सहयोग – उत्तर प्रदेश

5 Comments

  1. Finally, an issue that I am passionate about. I have looked for information of this caliber for the last several hours. Your site is greatly appreciated.

  2. Aditya says:

    To ensure that the young mindsets are given proper Sex Education, first and foremost, their parents, teachers and those at the helm of the affairs in the government need to be educated on the pros and cons of such education.

    The previous generation should expand their mind sets and horizons. Otherwise, what will arise will be protests by parents which would then lead to riots by vested interests like different political parties.

    Hence, careful approach for such a process needs to be taken before implementing on the go in various parts of the country.

    But, whatever said and done, Sex Education is a must for the youth of the country so as to educate them about the possible consequences.

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